- Dyck, L., Beierling, H., Helmert, RR. and Vollmer, A.-L. (2023). Technical Transparency for Robot Navigation Through AR Visualizations
Since robots can facilitate our everyday life by assisting us in basic tasks, they are continuously integrated into our life. However, for a robot to establish itself, a user must accept and trust its doing. As the saying goes, you don't trust things you don't understand. Therefore, the base hypothesis of this paper is that providing technical transparency for users can increase understanding of the robot architecture and its behaviors as well as trust and acceptance towards it. In this work, we aim to improve a robot's understanding, trust, and acceptance by displaying transparent visualizations of its intention and perception in augmented reality. We conducted a user study where robot navigation with certain interruptions was demonstrated to two groups. The first group did not have AR visualizations displayed during the first demonstration; in the second demonstration, the visualizations were shown. The second group had the visualizations displayed throughout only one demonstration. Results showed that understanding increased with AR visualizations when prior knowledge had been gained in previous demonstrations.
Leonie Dyck, Helen Beierling, Robin Helmert, and Anna-Lisa Vollmer. 2023. Technical Transparency for Robot Navigation Through AR Visualizations. In Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction (HRI '23). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 720–724. https://doi.org/10.1145/3568294.3580181
- Esposito E., eds. (2023). Sociologica Vol. 16 No. 3
Sociologica – International Journal for Sociological Debate is a peer-reviewed journal published three times a year. The journal publishes theoretical, methodological and empirical articles providing original and rigorous contributions to the sociological current debate. Founded in 2007, Sociologica is one of the first international journals of sociology published solely online.
Esposito E., eds. (2023). Sociologica Vol. 16 No. 3: https://sociologica.unibo.it/issue/view/1141
- Esposito, E. (2023). Explaining Machines: Social Management of Incomprehensible Algorithms. Introduction
This short introduction presents the symposium ‘Explaining Machines’. It locates the debate about Explainable AI in the history of the reflection about AI and outlines the issues discussed in the contributions.
Esposito, E. (2023). Explaining Machines: Social Management of Incomprehensible Algorithms. Introduction. Sociologica, 16(3), 1–4. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/16265
- Esposito, E. (2023). Does Explainability Require Transparency?
Dealing with opaque algorithms, the frequent overlap between transparency and explainability produces seemingly unsolvable dilemmas, as the much-discussed trade-off between model performance and model transparency. Referring to Niklas Luhmann's notion of communication, the paper argues that explainability does not necessarily require transparency and proposes an alternative approach. Explanations as communicative processes do not imply any disclosure of thoughts or neural processes, but only reformulations that provide the partners with additional elements and enable them to understand (from their perspective) what has been done and why. Recent computational approaches aiming at post-hoc explainability reproduce what happens in communication, producing explanations of the working of algorithms that can be different from the processes of the algorithms.
Esposito, E. (2023). Does Explainability Require Transparency?. Sociologica, 16(3), 17–27. https://doi.org/10.6092/issn.1971-8853/15804
- Robrecht, A. and Kopp, S. (2023). SNAPE: A Sequential Non-Stationary Decision Process Model for Adaptive Explanation Generation
The automatic generation of explanations is an increasingly important problem in the field of Explainable AI (XAI). However, while most work looks at how complete and correct information can be extracted or how it can be presented, the success of an explanation also depends on the person the explanation is targeted at. We present an adaptive explainer model that constructs and employs a partner model to tailor explanations during the course of the interaction. The model incorporates different linguistic levels of human-like explanations in a hierarchical, sequential decision process within a non-stationary environment. The model is based on online planning (using Monte Carlo Tree Search) to solve a continuously adapted MDP for explanation action and explanation move selection. We present the model as well as first results from explanation interactions with different kinds of simulated users.
Robrecht, A. and Kopp, S. (2023). SNAPE: A Sequential Non-Stationary Decision Process Model for Adaptive Explanation Generation. In Proceedings of the 15th International Conference on Agents and Artificial Intelligence - Volume 1: ICAART, ISBN 978-989-758-623-1; ISSN 2184-433X, pages 48-58. DOI: 10.5220/0011671300003393
- Sengupta, M., Alshomary, M., Wachsmuth, H. (2022). Back to the Roots: Predicting the Source Domain of Metaphors using Contrastive Learning
Metaphors frame a given target domain using concepts from another, usually more concrete, source domain. Previous research in NLP has focused on the identification of metaphors and the interpretation of their meaning. In contrast, this paper studies to what extent the source domain can be predicted computationally from a metaphorical text. Given a dataset with metaphorical texts from a finite set of source domains, we propose a contrastive learning approach that ranks source domains by their likelihood of being referred to in a metaphorical text. In experiments, it achieves reasonable performance even for rare source domains, clearly outperforming a classification baseline.
Meghdut Sengupta, Milad Alshomary, and Henning Wachsmuth. 2022. Back to the Roots: Predicting the Source Domain of Metaphors using Contrastive Learning. In Proceedings of the 3rd Workshop on Figurative Language Processing (FLP), pages 137–142, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates (Hybrid). Association for Computational Linguistics.
- Schmid, U. and Wrede, B., eds. (2022). Explainable AI
During the last years, explainable AI (XAI) has been established as a new area of research focussing on approaches which allow humans to comprehend and possibly control machine learned (ML) models and other AI-systems whose complexity makes the process which leads to a specific decision intransparent. In the beginning, most approaches were concerned with post-hoc explanations for classification decisions of deep learning architectures, especially for image classification. Furthermore, a growing number of empirical studies addressed effects of explanations on trust in and acceptability of AI/ML systems. Recent work has broadened the perspective of XAI, covering topics such as verbal explanations, explanations by prototypes and contrastive explanations, combining explanations and interactive machine learning, multi-step explanations, explanations in the context of machine teaching, relations between interpretable approaches of machine learning and post-hoc explanations, neuro-symbolic approaches and other hybrid approaches combining reasoning and learning for XAI. Addressing criticism regarding missing adaptivity more interactive accounts have been developed to take individual differences into account. Also, the question of evaluation beyond mere batch testing has come into focus.
Schmid U, Wrede B, eds. Explainable AI. KI - Künstliche Intelligenz. 2022.
- Wrede, B. (2022). AI: Back to the Roots?
It’s conference time and with their selection of keynote speakers conferences tend to be seismographs for trends in research. I had a look at a handful of this year’s international AI conferences. Here is my selection: a continuing trend seems to be explainable AI with IJCAI featuring even two keynotes in this area: Mihaela van der Schaar bringing our attention to machine learning interpretability in medicine which requires new methods for non-static data and which targets to enable medical scientists to make new discoveries by unraveling the underlying governing equations of medicine from data. However, Tim Miller reminds us to not let the “inmates run the asylum”. He argues that machine learning researchers may not bring in the best perspective to develop approaches for explanations that are helpful and understandable for lay persons. He makes a case of rather taking social scientists on board together with experts from human-computer interaction. Indeed, interdisciplinarity research has to be at the core of making AI decisions understandable and tractable for lay persons. At AAAI Cynthia Rudin has shared her experiences on bringing interpretable models into situations with high societal stakes such as decisions in criminal justice, healthcare, financial lending, and beyond, collaborating with people from different fields. It appears that this branch of AI requires new efforts in trans- and interdisciplinary research and I think we can expect highly interesting new insights from this field.
Wrede, B. AI: Back to the Roots?. Künstl Intell 36, 117–120 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-022-00773-7
- Fisher, J.B., Lohmer, V., Kern, F. et al. (2022). Exploring Monological and Dialogical Phases in Naturally Occurring Explanations
Recent approaches to Explainable AI (XAI) promise to satisfy diverse user expectations by allowing them to steer the interaction in order to elicit content relevant to them. However, little is known about how and to what extent the explainee takes part actively in the process of explaining. To tackle this empirical gap, we exploratively examined naturally occurring everyday explanations in doctor–patient interactions (N = 11). Following the social design of XAI, we view explanations as emerging in interactions: first, we identified the verbal behavior of both the explainer and the explainee in the sequential context, which we could assign to phases that were either monological or dialogical; second, we investigated in particular who was responsible for the initiation of the different phases. Finally, we took a closer look at the global conversational structure of explanations by applying a context-sensitive model of organizational jobs, thus adding a third layer of analysis. Results show that in our small sample of conversational explanations, both monological and dialogical phases varied in their length, timing of occurrence (at the early or later stages of the interaction) and their initiation (by the explainer or the explainee). They alternated several times in the course of the interaction. However, we also found some patterns suggesting that all interactions started with a monological phase initiated by the explainer. Both conversational partners contributed to the core organizational job that constitutes an explanation. We interpret the results as an indication for naturally occurring everyday explanations in doctor–patient interactions to be co-constructed on three levels of linguistic description: (1) by switching back and forth between monological to dialogical phases that (2) can be initiated by both partners and (3) by the mutual accomplishment and thus responsibility for an explanation’s core job that is crucial for the success of the explanation. Because of the explorative nature of our study, these results need to be investigated (a) with a larger sample and (b) in other contexts. However, our results suggest that future designs of artificial explainable systems should design the explanatory dialogue in such a way that it includes monological and dialogical phases that can be initiated not only by the explainer but also by the explainee, as both contribute to the core job of explicating procedural, clausal, or conceptual relations in explanations.
Fisher, J.B., Lohmer, V., Kern, F. et al. Exploring Monological and Dialogical Phases in Naturally Occurring Explanations. Künstl Intell (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-022-00787-1
- Schmid, U. and Wrede, B. (2022). What is Missing in XAI So Far? An Interdisciplinary Perspective
With the perspective on applications of AI-technology, especially data intensive deep learning approaches, the need for methods to control and understand such models has been recognized and gave rise to a new research domain labeled explainable artificial intelligence (XAI). In this overview paper we give an interim appraisal of what has been achieved so far and where there are still gaps in the research. We take an interdisciplinary perspective to identify challenges on XAI research and point to open questions with respect to the quality of the explanations regarding faithfulness and consistency of explanations. On the other hand we see a need regarding the interaction between XAI and user to allow for adaptability to specific information needs and explanatory dialog for informed decision making as well as the possibility to correct models and explanations by interaction. This endeavor requires an integrated interdisciplinary perspective and rigorous approaches to empirical evaluation based on psychological, linguistic and even sociological theories.
Schmid, U., Wrede, B. What is Missing in XAI So Far?. Künstl Intell (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s13218-022-00786-2
- Sieger, L., et al. (2022). User Involvement in Training Smart Home Agents: Increasing Perceived Control and Understanding
Smart home systems contain plenty of features that enhance well-being in everyday life through artificial intelligence (AI). However, many users feel insecure because they do not understand the AI’s functionality and do not feel they are in control of it. Combining technical, psychological and philosophical views on AI, we rethink smart homes as interactive systems where users can partake in an intelligent agent’s learning. Parallel to the goals of explainable AI (XAI), we explored the possibility of user involvement in supervised learning of the smart home to have a first approach to improve acceptance, support subjective understanding and increase perceived control. In this work, we conducted two studies: In an online pre-study, we asked participants about their attitude towards teaching AI via a questionnaire. In the main study, we performed a Wizard of Oz laboratory experiment with human participants, where partici- pants spent time in a prototypical smart home and taught activity recognition to the intelligent agent through supervised learning based on the user’s behaviour. We found that involvement in the AI’s learning phase enhanced the users’ feeling of control, perceived
understanding and perceived usefulness of AI in general. The participants reported positive attitudes towards training a smart home AI and found the process understandable and controllable. We suggest that involving the user in the learning phase could lead to better personalisation and increased understanding and control by users of intelligent agents for smart home automation.
Sieger, L., Hermann, J., Schomäcker, A., Heindorf, S., Meske, C., Hey, C., and Doğangün, A. 2022. User Involvement in Training Smart Home Agents: Increasing Perceived Control and Understanding. In Proceedings of the 10th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction (HAI ’22), December 5–8, 2022, Christchurch, New Zealand. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 10 pages. https://doi.org/10.1145/3527188.3561914
- Schütze, C., Groß, A., Wrede, B., & Richter, B. (2022). Enabling Non-Technical Domain Experts to Create Robot-Assisted Therapeutic Scenarios via Visual Programming.
In this paper, we present a visual programming software for enabling non-technical domain experts to create robot-assisted therapy scenarios for multiple robotic platforms. Our new approach is evaluated by comparing it with Choregraphe, the standard visual programming framework for the often used robotics platforms Pepper and NAO. We could show that our approach receives higher usability values and allows users to perform better in some practical tasks, including understanding, changing and creating small robot-assisted therapy scenarios.
Schütze, C., Groß, A., Wrede, B., & Richter, B. (2022). Enabling Non-Technical Domain Experts to Create Robot-Assisted Therapeutic Scenarios via Visual Programming. In R. Tumuluri, N. Sebe, G. Pingali, D. B. Jayagopi, A. Dhall, R. Singh, L. Anthony, et al. (Eds.), ICMI '22 Companion: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MULTIMODAL INTERACTION (pp. 166-170). New York, NY, USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3536220.3558072
- Groß A., Schütze C., Wrede B., Richter B. (2022). An Architecture Supporting Configurable Autonomous Multimodal Joint-Attention-Therapy for Various Robotic Systems
In this paper, we present a software-architecture for robot-assisted configurable and autonomous Joint-Attention-Training scenarios to support autism therapy. The focus of the work is the expandability of the architecture for the use of different robots, as well as the maximization of the usability of the interface for the therapeutic user. By evaluating the user-experience, we draw first conclusions about the usability of the system for computer and non-computer scientists. Both groups can solve different tasks without any major issues, and the overall usability of the system was rated as good.
Groß, A., Schütze, C., Wrede, B., & Richter, B. (2022). An Architecture Supporting Configurable Autonomous Multimodal Joint-Attention-Therapy for Various Robotic Systems. In R. Tumuluri, N. Sebe, G. Pingali, D. B. Jayagopi, A. Dhall, R. Singh, L. Anthony, et al. (Eds.), ICMI '22 Companion: INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MULTIMODAL INTERACTION (pp. 154-159). New York, NY, USA: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3536220.3558070
- Schulz, C. (2022). A new algorithmic imaginary
The algorithmic imaginary as a theoretical concept has received increasing attention in recent years as it aims at users’ appropriation of algorithmic processes operating in opacity. But the concept originally only starts from the users’ point of view, while the processes on the platforms’ side are largely left out. In contrast, this paper argues that what is true for users is also valid for algorithmic processes and the designers behind. On the one hand, the algorithm imagines users’ future behavior via machine learning, which is supposed to predict all their future actions. On the other hand, the designers anticipate different actions that could potentially performed by users with every new implementation of features such as social media feeds. In order to bring into view this permanently reciprocal interplay coupled to the imaginary, in which not only the users are involved, I will argue for a more comprehensive and theoretically precise algorithmic imaginary referring to the theory of Cornelius Castoriadis. In such a perspective, an important contribution can be formulated for a theory of social media platforms that goes beyond praxeocentrism or structural determinism.
Schulz, C. (2022). A new algorithmic imaginary. Media, Culture & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/01634437221136014
- Rohlfing, K. J., Vollmer, A.-L., Fritsch, J. and Wrede, B. (2022). Which “motionese” parameters change with children's age? Disentangling attention-getting from action-structuring modifications
Modified action demonstration—dubbed motionese—has been proposed as a way to help children recognize the structure and meaning of actions. However, until now, it has been investigated only in young infants. This brief research report presents findings from a cross-sectional study of parental action demonstrations to three groups of 8–11, 12–23, and 24–30-month-old children that applied seven motionese parameters; a second study investigated the youngest group of participants longitudinally to corroborate the cross-sectional results. Results of both studies suggested that four motionese parameters (Motion Pauses, Pace, Velocity, Acceleration) seem to structure the action by organizing it in motion pauses. Whereas these parameters persist over different ages, three other parameters (Demonstration Length, Roundness, and Range) occur predominantly in the younger group and seem to serve to organize infants' attention on the basis of movement. Results are discussed in terms of facilitative vs. pedagogical learning.
Rohlfing K. J., Vollmer A.-L., Fritsch J. and Wrede B. (2022). Which “motionese” parameters change with children's age? Disentangling attention-getting from action-structuring modifications. Front. Commun. 7:922405. doi: 10.3389/fcomm.2022.922405
- Rohlfing, K. J., et al. (2022). Social/dialogical roles of social robots in supporting children’s learning of language and literacy—A review and analysis of innovative roles
One of the many purposes for which social robots are designed is education, and there have been many attempts to systematize their potential in this field. What these attempts have in common is the recognition that learning can be supported in a variety of ways because a learner can be engaged in different activities that foster learning. Up to now, three roles have been proposed when designing these activities for robots: as a teacher or tutor, a learning peer, or a novice. Current research proposes that deciding in favor of one role over another depends on the content or preferred pedagogical form. However, the design of activities changes not only the content of learning, but also the nature of a human–robot social relationship. This is particularly important in language acquisition, which has been recognized as a social endeavor. The following review aims to specify the differences in human–robot social relationships when children learn language through interacting with a social robot. After proposing categories for comparing these different relationships, we review established and more specific, innovative roles that a robot can play in language-learning scenarios. This follows Mead’s (1946) theoretical approach proposing that social roles are performed in interactive acts. These acts are crucial for learning, because not only can they shape the social environment of learning but also engage the learner to different degrees. We specify the degree of engagement by referring to Chi’s (2009) progression of learning activities that range from active, constructive, toward interactive with the latter fostering deeper learning. Taken together, this approach enables us to compare and evaluate different human–robot social relationships that arise when applying a robot in a particular social role.
Rohlfing K. J., Altvater-Mackensen N., Caruana N., van den Berghe R., Bruno B., Tolksdorf N. F. and Hanulíková A. (2022) Social/dialogical roles of social robots in supporting children’s learning of language and literacy—A review and analysis of innovative roles. Front. Robot. AI 9:971749. doi: 10.3389/frobt.2022.971749
- Wachsmuth, H., & Alshomary, M. (2022). "Mama Always Had a Way of Explaining Things So I Could Understand": A Dialogue Corpus for Learning to Construct Explanations
As AI is more and more pervasive in everyday life, humans have an increasing demand to understand its behavior and decisions. Most research on explainable AI builds on the premise that there is one ideal explanation to be found. In fact, however, everyday explanations are co-constructed in a dialogue between the person explaining (the explainer) and the specific person being explained to (the explainee). In this paper, we introduce a first corpus of dialogical explanations to enable NLP research on how humans explain as well as on how AI can learn to imitate this process. The corpus consists of 65 transcribed English dialogues from the Wired video series 5 Levels, explaining 13 topics to five explainees of different proficiency. All 1550 dialogue turns have been manually labeled by five independent professionals for the topic discussed as well as for the dialogue act and the explanation move performed. We analyze linguistic patterns of explainers and explainees, and we explore differences across proficiency levels. BERT-based baseline results indicate that sequence information helps predicting topics, acts, and moves effectively.
Wachsmuth, H., & Alshomary, M. (2022). "Mama Always Had a Way of Explaining Things So I Could Understand'': A Dialogue Corpus for Learning to Construct Explanations. Proceedings of the 29th International Conference on Computational Linguistics arXiv. https://doi.org/10.48550/ARXIV.2209.02508
- Battefeld, D., & Kopp, S. (2022). Formalizing cognitive biases in medical diagnostic reasoning
This paper presents preliminary work on the formalization of three prominent cognitive biases in the diagnostic reasoning process over epileptic seizures, psychogenic seizures and syncopes. Diagnostic reasoning is understood as iterative exploration of medical evidence. This exploration is represented as a partially observable Markov decision process where the state (i.e., the correct diagnosis) is uncertain. Observation likelihoods and belief updates are computed using a Bayesian network which defines the interrelation between medical risk factors, diagnoses and potential findings. The decision problem is solved via partially observable upper confidence bounds for trees in Monte-Carlo planning. We compute a biased diagnostic exploration policy by altering the generated state transition, observation and reward during look ahead simulations. The resulting diagnostic policies reproduce reasoning errors which have only been described informally in the medical literature. We plan to use this formal representation in the future to inversely detect and classify biased reasoning in actual diagnostic trajectories obtained from physicians.
Battefeld, D., & Kopp, S. (2022). Formalizing cognitive biases in medical diagnostic reasoning. Presented at the 8th Workshop on Formal and Cognitive Reasoning (FCR), Trier. Link: https://pub.uni-bielefeld.de/record/2964809
- Muschalik, M., Fumagalli, F., Hammer, B., Hüllermeier E. (2022). Agnostic Explanation of Model Change based on Feature Importance
Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) has mainly focused on static learning tasks so far. In this paper, we consider XAI in the context of online learning in dynamic environments, such as learning from real-time data streams, where models are learned incrementally and continuously adapted over the course of time. More specifically, we motivate the problem of explaining model change, i.e. explaining the difference between models before and after adaptation, instead of the models themselves. In this regard, we provide the first efficient model-agnostic approach to dynamically detecting, quantifying, and explaining significant model changes. Our approach is based on an adaptation of the well-known Permutation Feature Importance (PFI) measure. It includes two hyperparameters that control the sensitivity and directly influence explanation frequency, so that a human user can adjust the method to individual requirements and application needs. We assess and validate our method’s efficacy on illustrative synthetic data streams with three popular model classes.
Muschalik, M., Fumagalli, F., Hammer, B., Hüllermeier E. (2022). Agnostic Explanation of Model Change based on Feature Importance. Künstl Intell. doi: 10.1007/s13218-022-00766-6
- Finke, J., Horwath, I., Matzner, T., Schulz, C. (2022). (De)Coding Social Practice in the Field of XAI: Towards a Co-constructive Framework of Explanations and Understanding Between Lay Users and Algorithmic Systems
Advances in the development of AI and its application in many areas of society have given rise to an ever-increasing need for society’s members to understand at least to a certain degree how these technologies work. Where users are concerned, most approaches in Explainable Artificial Intelligence (XAI) assume a rather narrow view on the social process of explaining and show an undifferentiated assessment of explainees’ understanding, which mostly are considered passive recipients of information. The actual knowledge, motives, needs and challenges of (lay)users in algorithmic environments remain mostly missing. We argue for the consideration of explanation as a social practice in which explainer and explainee co-construct understanding jointly. Therefore, we seek to enable lay users to document, evaluate, and reflect on distinct AI interactions and correspondingly on how explainable AI actually is in their daily lives. With this contribution we want to discuss our methodological approach that enhances the documentary method by the implementation of ‘digital diaries’ via the mobile instant messaging app WhatsApp – the most used instant messaging service worldwide. Furthermore, from a theoretical stance, we examine the socio-cultural patterns of orientation that guide users’ interactions with AI and their imaginaries of the technologies – a sphere that is mostly obscured and hard to access for researchers. Finally, we complete our paper with empirical insights by referring to previous studies that point out the relevance of perspectives on explaining and understanding as a co-constructive social practice.
Finke, J., Horwath, I., Matzner, T., Schulz, C. (2022). (De)Coding Social Practice in the Field of XAI: Towards a Co-constructive Framework of Explanations and Understanding Between Lay Users and Algorithmic Systems. In: Degen, H., Ntoa, S. (eds) Artificial Intelligence in HCI. HCII 2022. Lecture Notes in Computer Science(), vol 13336. Springer, Cham. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-05643-7_10
- Buschmeier H., et al. (2022). Modeling Feedback in Interaction With Conversational Agents - A Review
Intelligent agents interacting with humans through conversation (such as a robot, embodied conversational agent, or chatbot) need to receive feedback from the human to make sure that its communicative acts have the intended consequences. At the same time, the human interacting with the agent will also seek feedback, in order to ensure that her communicative acts have the intended consequences. In this review article, we give an overview of past and current research on how intelligent agents should be able to both give meaningful feedback toward humans, as well as understanding feedback given by the users. The review covers feedback across different modalities (e.g., speech, head gestures, gaze, and facial expression), different forms of feedback (e.g., backchannels, clarification requests), and models for allowing the agent to assess the user's level of understanding and adapt its behavior accordingly. Finally, we analyse some shortcomings of current approaches to modeling feedback, and identify important directions for future research. Full article
Axelsson A., Buschmeier H. and Skantze G. (2022) Modeling Feedback in Interaction With Conversational Agents - A Review. Front. Comput. Sci. 4:744574. doi: 10.3389/fcomp.2022.744574
- Rohlfing, K. J., Cimiano, et al. (2021). Explanation as a social practice: Toward a conceptual framework for the social design of AI systems
The recent surge of interest in explainability in artificial intelligence (XAI) is propelled by not only technological advancements in machine learning but also by regulatory initiatives to foster transparency in algorithmic decision making. In this article, we revise the current concept of explainability and identify three limitations: passive explainee, narrow view on the social process, and undifferentiated assessment of explainee’s understanding. In order to overcome these limitations, we present explanation as a social practice in which explainer and explainee co-construct understanding on the microlevel. We view the co-construction on a microlevel as embedded into a macrolevel, yielding expectations concerning, e.g., social roles or partner models: typically, the role of the explainer is to provide an explanation and to adapt it to the current level of explainee’s understanding; the explainee, in turn, is expected to provide cues that direct the explainer. Building on explanations being a social practice, we present a conceptual framework that aims to guide future research in XAI. The framework relies on the key concepts of monitoring and scaffolding to capture the development of interaction. We relate our conceptual framework and our new perspective on explaining to transparency and autonomy as objectives considered for XAI.
Rohlfing, K. J., Cimiano, P., Scharlau, I., Matzner, T., Buhl, H. M., Buschmeier, H., Esposito, E, Grimminger, A, Hammer, B., Häb-Umbach, R., Horwath, I., Hüllermeier, E., Kern, F., Kopp, S., Thommes, K., Ngonga Ngomo, A., Schulte, C., Wachsmuth, H., Wagner, P. & Wrede, B. (2021). Explanation as a social practice: Toward a conceptual framework for the social design of AI systems. IEEE Transactions on Cognitive and Developmental Systems 13(3), 717-728. doi: 10.1109/TCDS.2020.3044366